‘Polymorph-EE-c’ a.k.a Java EE avatars

Polymorphism + Java EE = Polymorph-EE-c

This post covers the various avatars of Java EE containers of various shapes, sizes and flavours !

Good old ‘full-blown’ application server

The Java EE Web Profile

  • Stripped down version of the full Java EE stack
  • Support for limited (yet significant) Java EE APIs. The list of specifications is available in section WP.2.1 of the Web Profile specification document 
  • Vendors can choose to be compliant with only the Web Profile (e.g. Apache TomEE) or provide additional API support on top of the pre-defined list in the Web Profile

Embedded app servers

  • The app server as a library concept allows you to launch a Java EE container as a process from existing Java code using specific APIs (not very different from putting another JAR in your classpath)
  • Examples: Glassfish is the most prominent example of an embedded container
  • Advantages: Good for testing, no setup/installation needed,

Embedded versions of Java EE APIs

  • Some of the Java EE APIs specifications support execution in an embedded mode. What this means is that instead of using a Java EE (full or web profile) container, one can just leverage the services of a specific technology. This is generally achieved by using the specification centric library (JAR) invoking a bootstrap API (to be invoked by your Java code) which launches the container inside the same JVM – think of it as another (Java) process
  • Embeddable API examples: EJB (OpenEJB), CDI (Weld, OpenWebBeans), Servlet (Jetty, Undertow)

Micro and BYOR (Build Your Own Runtime) frameworks

  • These are lightweight breed of containers which revolves around the notion of supporting a limited set of specific APIs (in a pre-defined or flexible manner)
  • Relatively new & fuelled by microservices, Docker etc.
  • The BYOR style frameworks (e.g. Wildfly Swarm, KumuluzEE) allow you to pick and choose different Java EE APIs as per your requirements, build a fat JAR and kick start your application using java -jar 
  • As far as Micro mode is concerned, I am only aware of Payara Micro. Here is a previous blog post on this topic
  • Similarities b/w Micro & BYOR: both embrace java -jar style
  • Differences b/w Micro & BYOR: Micro version has pre-defined set of APIs as opposed to a more modular approach followed by BYOR style solutions

Have you seen/used Java EE in other avatars? Drop in a comment


About Abhishek

Currently working as a Senior Product Manager in the Oracle Cloud Application Development team with a focus on Oracle Cloud PaaS portfolio. When not hovering in the clouds, I stay grounded with Java EE
This entry was posted in Java, Java EE and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to ‘Polymorph-EE-c’ a.k.a Java EE avatars

  1. struberg says:

    For Apache Tomcat, TomEE and OpenWebBeans there are quite a few different ways to get it done:

    Use Tomcat-embedded: servlet-3.1
    Use Tomcat-embedded + OpenWebBeans: servlet-3.1 + cdi-1.2. All that takes about 5MB
    Use TomEE shades (basically Tomcat + OpenWebBeans + JPA + MyFaces + CXF + + +): webprofile up to full EE in about 20..35MB

    Fazit: with the Apache Tomcat++ stack you can scale up from tiny to full EE by maintaining full EE compat for the parts you really use.


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